Tiếng Anh 10 | Unit 9: Undersea World (Hệ 7 Năm)
Chúng ta cùng tìm hiểu từ vựng miêu tả thế giới đại dương (undersea world), động vật biển (marine animals) và cách dùng câu điều kiện loại 2 (second conditionals).
In this Sept. 6, 2017 photo provided by the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), fish swim in a reef at Pearl and Hermes Atoll in the Northwestern Hawaiian Islands. Photo: Jacob Asher/NOAA via AP
1. HIGHLIGHTS IN VOCABULARY:
There is only one ocean. It is divided into five different parts: the Pacific, Atlantic, Indian, Antarctic and Arctic Oceans. There are also many other smaller seas, gulfs and bays which form part of them. Altogether they cover 75 percent of the earth’s surface. For centuries, people have been challenged by the mysteries that lie beneath the ocean. However, today’s scientists have overcome many of the challenges of the depth by using modern devices. They send submarines to investigate the seabed and bring samples of marine life back to the surface for further study. Satellite photographs provide a wide range of information, including water temperature, depth and the undersea populations. If modern technology did not exist, we would never have such precious information.
Marine plants and animals fall into three major groups. Some of them live on or depend on the bottom like starfish. Some are swimming animals such as fishes and sharks that move independently of water currents while others are tiny organisms that are carried along by the current like the jellyfish. Plants and animals of the sea, however small or oversized, all contribute to its biodiversity. Unless this biodiversity were maintained, marine life would be at stake.
The ocean is divided into five different parts.
The + ocean: mạo từ THE kèm theo tên các đại dương và biển lớn
The Pacific, The Atlantic, The Indian, The Arctic, The Antarctic, The North Sea, The South China Sea
The + each species: mạo từ THE kèm theo tên từng chủng loài động vật
The turtle, The jellyfish, The seal, The shark, The whale
Besides the oceans, there are also smaller seas, gulfs and bays.
> … các biển, vịnh lớn, vịnh nhỏ
We are challenged by mysteries that lie beneath the ocean.
> … những điều bí ẩn … ẩn sâu dưới đại dương
Submarines provide us with samples of marine life and the seabed
> những mẫu vật về sự sống dưới đại dương và đáy biển
Satellites provide a wide range of information about water temperature, depths and undersea populations.
> … cung cấp nhiều nguồn thông tin về nhiệt độ nước, độ sâu và số lượng các loài hải sinh
Marine life falls into three groups:
> được chia thành 3 nhóm chính
1. Some live on and depend on the bottom like the starfish.
… nhóm lệ thuộc đáy biển …
2. Some move independently of water currents, such as fishes and sharks.
… nhóm di chuyển tự lập không phụ thuộc vào hải lưu
3. Other tiny organisms are carried along by the currents like the plankton and the jellyfish.
… nhóm phiêu du theo các dòng chảy
All contribute to biodiversity, which should be maintained. Otherwise, marine life would be at stake.
> Tất cả đều góp phần làm nên sự đa dạng sinh học … cần được bảo tồn …. sẽ gặp rủi ro
2. WRITING AND PRESENTATION:
Tập thuyết trình với ghi chú là các từ nội dung then chốt phối hợp với cách diễn tả khoa học.
*TALKING ABOUT MARINE ANIMALS:
Sperm whales communicate using clicks. Individuals learn their clicks from those around them, and different groups of sperm whales use distinct patterns of clicks. That the whales’ behavior differs among groups suggests the animals have a form of culture. Photo: Day Donaldson/Flickr
Sperm whales are the biggest animals on Earth that have teeth. They are carnivores, which means they eat meat. Although sperm whales can be found in all oceans, they prefer the waters with high squid populations, which are their main diet. A sperm whale can eat up to 1,500 kg of food each day.
Sperm whales are big animals. The males can grow up to 18 metres long and weigh up to 54,000 kg while the females are a bit smaller with a length of 12 metres and a weight of 17,000 kg. A female sperm whale gives birth to one calf every five to seven years after a gestation period of fourteen to nineteen months. The life span of sperm whales can be up to sixty or seventy years. It is interesting to know that they also have the largest brain of any mammals. Sperm whale populations are at risk due to hunting and their accidental entrapment in fishing nets.
+ Range and habitat: Phạm vi phân bố và nơi sinh sống
Although sperm whales can be found in all oceans, they prefer the waters with high squid populations.
+ Size: Kích cỡ
Sperm whales are big animals. The males can grow up to 18 metres long and weigh up to 54,000 kg while the females are a bit smaller with a length of 12 metres and a weight of 17,000 kg.
+ Feeding habits: Tập quán săn mồi
Sperm whales are carnivores, which prefer squids as their main diet. A Sperm whale can eat up to 1,500 kg of food each day.
+ Offspring: Việc sinh con
A female sperm whale gives birth to one calf every five to seven years after a gestation period of fourteen to nineteen months.
+ Life span: Tuổi thọ
The life span of sperm whales can be up to sixty or seventy years.
+ Special features: Đặc tính khác biệt
It is interesting to know that they also have the largest brain of any mammals.
+ Conservation concerns: Quan ngại về bảo tồn
Sperm whale populations are at risk due to hunting and their accidental entrapment in fishing nets.
3. HIGHLIGHTS IN PHONETICS:
NGUYÊN ÂM GHÉP trong BRITISH ENGLISH /eə/, /ɪə/, /ʊə/ PHẦN LỚN CÓ ‘R’ KÈM SAU
TRONG AMERICAN ENGLISH TƯƠNG ỨNG LÀ /er/, /ɪr/, /ʊr/
/eə/ as in fair, hair, stairs, rare, scare, mare, pears, footwear, bears, …
/ɪə/ as in here, sphere, merely, gear, appear, fear, steer, cheers, peers, …
/ʊə/ as in poor, moor, tour, sure, ensure, assure, actual, factual, usual, …
4. HIGHLIGHTS IN GRAMMAR:
JUST IMAGINE A SITUATION, unreal or unlikely
CÂU ĐIỀU KIỆN LOẠI 2, GIẢ ĐỊNH, TƯỞNG TƯỢNG HAY KHÓ CÓ KHẢ NĂNG XẢY RA.
+ WHAT IF YOU WON A JACKPOT? > UNLIKEY
What would you do if you won a jackpot?
+ WHAT IF THE PLANET EARTH STOPPED MOVING FOR A DAY OR TWO? > UNREAL
What would happen if the planet earth stopped moving for a day or two?
+ IF I WERE YOU, I WOULD GIVE UP SMOKING RIGHT AWAY. > ADVICE
If you asked for my advice, I would say you should give up smoking.
+ WOULD YOU MIND IF I ASKED YOU SOME QUESTION? > POLITE REQUEST
+ COULD I ASK YOU A QUESTION? IF YOU DIDN’T MIND ME ASKING. > POLITE REQUEST
+ I can’t afford it, so normally I don’t go away for weekends. I would like to, though.
IF I COULD AFFORD IT, I’D GO AWAY FOR A WEEKEND SOMETIMES.
+ I haven’t got a car, so I take the bus to work every day.
IF I HAD A CAR, I WOULDN’T TAKE THE BUS TO WORK.
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