English 10 | Unit 1: A Day in Your Life / Family Life | Lesson 1: Getting Started
Chào đón các em học sinh đến với trang mục Bài Soạn và Trợ Giảng dành cho lớp 10, hệ 7 năm (seven-year syllabus) cũng như 10 năm (ten-year syllabus)!
Trọng tâm gồm những phần sau: Topic-specific Vocabulary, Use of Present Simple & Present Progressive, Talking about Daily Life, Discussing Family Life, Expanding Ideas, Tips on Learning Word Definitions and Collocations in English.
A. TO LEAD IN:
WHAT IS YOUR TYPICAL DAY?
Do you get up early? What’s the first thing you do? Spare a moment of meditation or thanksgiving, dành giây lát thiền định hay tạ ơn? Plan the day, deciding what to do and who to meet? Time to work out or exercise? Have a wash or a lukewarm shower? Browse through the news pages, rảo qua các trang báo mạng / Take a sip of morning tea or coffee, nhấm nháp trà hay cà phê sáng / Have time for breakfast? Get packed for school / work, chuẩn bị hành trang đi học? The morning tasks? How do you spend lunch time? The afternoon work? After school /class? How do you spend the evening? What about a typical weekend?
WHAT IS YOUR FAMILY LIKE?
It is a small family of five. I live with four other family members. We care for one another, chăm sóc quan tâm đến nhau, but we respect self-discipline, tôn trọng sự tự giác, privacy and independence. We value duty sharing, trân trọng sự chia sẻ phân nhiệm. It’s a good way to show our care for others. In tradition, mothers are homemakers while fathers are breadwinners. However, our family is a bit different. Both parents work and contribute to the finances. They are equal life partners, bạn đời bình đẳng, holding hands to overcome difficulties and obstacles, vượt qua khó khăn trở ngại, on the journey of life. Parents look after children. Children look up to parents, kính trọng bố mẹ, listening to them and taking their advice.
B. VOCABULARY AND WORD POWER:
1. YOUR TYPICAL DAY:
Hãy nói về tập quán hàng ngày của bạn với những từ ngữ dưới đây. Dùng thì hiện tại đơn, khẳng định hay phủ định.
THIS IS A TYPICAL DAY IN MY LIFE.
I live a simple lifestyle of ‘Early to bed and Early to rise.’
I hardly ever change the morning routine, getting ready for the day ahead .
I usually read a morning newspaper over a cup of tea.
Sometimes I watch the morning news on telly with a cup of coffee.
It normally takes me an hour to get ready for the day’s work.
I am used to taking my time preparing for the day at work / at school.
DO YOU …? WHEN DO YOU USUALLY …?
Leave home for work at 6.30 / Get to work at 6.45
Start work at 7.15 / Take a break / a short rest at 9.30
Go back to work again / Have a 30-minute lunch break
Resume the afternoon work / Finish work for the day at 5.00
Do homework with my Math tutor / Have an extra English class
Do some odd jobs around the house / Help with some household chores
Get around 30 minutes to relax / Browse my Facebook pages
Check out several YouTube videos / Answer several email or text messages
Stay out late / Stay up late / Sleep late the next morning
2. MY FAMILY LIFE:
Chủ đề CUỘC SỐNG GIA ĐÌNH. Đọc văn cảnh, học từ vựng in đậm theo chủ đề.
Uncle Long asks Nam’s father out (mời rủ đi chơi) for a game of tennis, but he can’t. He’s preparing dinner (chuẩn bị bữa tối) while Nam’s mother is working out late (đi làm về trễ) today. She usually does the cooking (nấu ăn) and Nam and his sister help with the housework (phụ giúp việc nhà). They divide or split household chores (san sẻ việc nội trợ) equally among themselves: shopping for groceries (đi chợ mua thực phẩm), doing the laundry and the washing up (giặt đồ và rửa chén), taking out the rubbish (đổ rác) and a lot more. Things are different in Uncle Long’s family. He is the breadwinner, responsible for the household finances (người kiếm cơm, lo tài chính gia đình). Whereas, his wife is the homemaker, who handles most of the chores (nội tướng, một tay quản việc nội trợ) around the house.
HOW DO YOU SHARE THE HOUSEHOLD CHORES?
WHAT DO YOU USUALLY DO FOR EXAMPLE?
1. Làm việc nội trợ:
do the washing / do the laundry
do the washing-up / wash up / wash the dishes
do the grocery shopping / do the cleaning
shop for grocery / shop for stuff
do the shopping / go to the shops
do the ironing / make the bed
dust the furniture / tidy up the rooms
water the house plants
2. Cùng sẻ chia, gánh vác:
share the housework
take care of the pet dogs / cats
divide the household chores
lay the table before dinner
clear up the table after dinner
split the household duties equally
do the repairs / fix up something
do the gardening / work around the house
3. Làm việc lặt vặt khác:
take out the trash / Take out the rubbish
clean up the kitchen / tidy up the bedroom
do the heavy lifting : khiêng vác nặng
run the errands: chạy việc vặt
do odd jobs around the house: làm việc lặt vặt ở nhà
tidy things away: dọn dẹp ngăn nắp
clear the mess: dọn dẹp bề bộn
3. Vai trò trong gia đình/ Family roles:
the breadwinner / the provider: người kiếm cơm
the homemaker / the housewife: nữ nội tướng
the housemaid / the cleaner: chị phụ việc, cô vệ sinh
Men build the house and women make it home. (Proverb: Đàn ông dựng nhà, đàn bà xây tổ ấm)
housewife / househusband: người nội trợ
carer / caretaker for grannies: người chăm sóc
budget the finances: lập kế hoạch chi tiêu
pay the household bills: chi trả hóa đơn hàng tháng
4. Học từ vựng qua định nghĩa đơn ngữ:
Đây là cách học cơ bản nhất giúp học sinh hiểu đúng nội hàm từ để diễn đạt.
Hôm nay các em học cách định nghĩa danh từ trong tiếng Anh.
Chore refers to a routine task, especially a household one.
A chore is a routine task or a piece of housework you do regularly in the house.
Hãy dùng động từ ‘refers to’ để nói danh xưng nào đó ý chỉ đến việc gì.
Bạn có thể dùng động từ to be ‘is’ để nói một vật, người hay danh từ nào đó là gì.
Qua định nghĩa học sinh được học thêm các từ liên can mô tả đặc tính của sự việc:
Các từ ‘household,’ ‘housework,’ ‘regularly’ và ‘routine’ mô tả đặc tính của ‘chores’. ‘Household, housework, regularly and routine’ are all associated with chores.
1. Present Simple: Daily Routines vs. Present Continuous: At-the-moment Jobs
Every day, Ms. Hằng does most of the housework, but today is Mother’s Day. She isn’t doing any housework. Her husband and the children are doing it for her. Tomorrow she will do most of the chores as usual.2. Examples:
Normally I take the train to school, but now I am riding my scooter. I always feel safe on the train, but at the moment I am getting a bit nervous about my safety.
3. Grammar in Use:
Các em hãy tập nói câu ghép ứng dụng: “Thông thường + HT đơn, nhưng lúc này đây + HT tiếp diễn”. Ngoài ra luôn để ý yếu tố thời gian ‘thông thường’ hay ‘tiếp diễn’ để lựa chọn diễn đạt phù hợp. Sau đây là các yếu tố thời gian ‘thông thường’ cho thì hiện tại đơn:
When I have time, …
Whenever I feel depressed, …
Every now and then …
Once or twice a week …
After dinner I usually …
Sometimes I …
I hardly ever …
Occasionally we …
On the weekend / normally
More often than not / Every so often …
Ex. More often than not we go out for breakfast, but today we are eating at home.
Ex. I hardly ever go to the beach, but today I am spending time with friends by the sea.
D. VOCABULARY IN SKILL DEVELOPMENT:
You may find the following expressions useful. If so, learn them first in collocations. Observe the topic and work out the meaning of the expressions under each topic. Practice using them by asking yourself sensible questions like ‘Who’s responsible for the family finances?’, ‘Do you help out in some way?’
1. For a happy family:
be responsible for the finances
try to help out
the rest of the family
relationships within the family
do well at school
tend to be overall good
care about someone
contribute to the family
be vulnerable to illness
work together on household chores
create a positive atmosphere
set a good example, be a role model
2. My daily routine:
usually get up early
sometimes sleep late
start the day by taking a leisurely walk
begin my day with a few minutes of meditation
a good way to set the tone for the day
a healthy way to get the day started
take a brisk walk
go jogging to keep fit
stay healthy first
keep fit later
plan your work well in advance
to avoid getting stressed
never get too excited about anything
take time to get things done
never push yourself too hard
avoid doing things hurriedly
3. For gender equality: bình đẳng giới
contribute to something
have equal chances
chances for recreation
chances of happiness
4. Many hands make light work: chung tay công việc trở nên nhẹ nhàng
a family of four
my elder sister and I
spend most of one’s time somewhere
spend time doing sth
do most of the cooking
help with the washing
being the eldest child
as the eldest child
take up a large share
my responsibilities include …
take turns doing sth
lay the table for meals
clear the table after meals
do one’s share of work willingly
everyone contributes, …
If everyone gives a hand, …
look after oneself
care for other members
5. Families in Vietnam:
join hands to do sth
1. Your school schedule:
What classes do you have on Monday?
→ I have Math, Biology and Literature.
When do you have P.E (Physical Education)?
→ I have P.E. twice a week, on Tuesday and Friday.
2. Your daily routine:
WHAT IS YOUR TYPICAL DAY?
Every morning I get up at …, early enough to get ready for the day’s work.
First of all I usually … It’s a good way to start the day.
Then I have a big breakfast at around …Breakfast should be the biggest of all.
After breakfast, …
By lunch time, I have finished …
For lunch I normally … Then we have a short break for about … minutes.
After lunch … try to finish work by 4.30 … get home around … First thing: a shower
A small dinner / a light meal … After dinner … Time for relaxation & entertainment
Sometimes I go out with … for a coffee. But usually / get home before 10.00.
Time for news update & socialisation on Facebook
3. Chores I like:
WHAT YOU LIKE OR DISLIKE DOING? WHY?
(1) What household chores do you do every day?
(2) Which of the chores do you like doing the most?
(3) What do you like about it?
(4) Which of the chores do you dislike the most? Why?
(1) I try to share the housework. I help keep the house clean and tidy.
I feel like finding things fresh and clean at home.
(2) I also help with the gardening like watering plants and trimming branches.
I love greenery and so our place should be clean and fresh all the time.
(3) But the chore I like doing the most is the laundry.
It feels like recycling old clothes into new ones. The washing machine does it all. I just load and unload the washing compartment. Then your clothes keep looking new and fresh and smelling fragrant.
(4) One thing I never enjoy doing is taking out the household trash. I can’t stand the sight of garbage and the STINKING smell of rotten leftover odds and ends.