Chuyên Đề Ngữ Pháp Trong Đề Thi Quốc Gia Tiếng Anh 2020

Reflective English thân gửi các em học sinh cuối cấp THPT bài diễn giải định hướng học phần Ngữ pháp trong Đề thi Tiếng Anh THPT Quốc gia 2020.

Grammar and Sentence Structures: 32 câu trong 8 chủ điểm ngữ pháp liên quan câu đơn-phức-ghép trong Đề thi Tiếng Anh THPT 2020.

1. In place of a restrictive relative clause:

Present / past participle phrases

Khi bổ túc thêm thông tin chi tiết, có thể dùng đến mệnh đề quan hệ hay cụm phân từ.

Để mô tả sự việc đang diễn ra hay thuộc tính ổn định, ta sử dụng mệnh đề quan hệ chủ động hay cụm hiện tại phân từ.

Để nói đến sự vật bị tác động, ta sử dụng mệnh đề quan hệ bị động hay cụm quá khứ phân từ.

Health experts strongly advise patients with hypertension to avoid food >>

>> which contains high amounts of fat.

>>containing high amounts of fat.

All those stores and stalls along the beach trade in fake products >>

>> that are trafficked from China through the northern border towns.

>> trafficked from China through the northern border towns.

 

Question 1: Health experts strongly advise patients with hypertension to avoid food ___________ high amounts of fat.

A. contained; B. containing; C. contains; D. is contained

Question 2: Even little things like turning off the lights when not in use can make a difference to the amount of electricity ______.

A. is consuming; B. consuming; C. consumed; D.is consumed

Question 3: The local shop deals in many kinds of hair products _____ from reasonably priced shampoos to rather expensive dyes.

A. range; B. are ranging; C. are ranged; D. ranging 

Question 4: The data ______ from the survey allowed the researchers to gain insights into young people’s attitudes to marriage.

A. obtains; B. obtaining; C. is obtained; D. obtained

(Nguồn: Đề thi QG 2020)


2. Conditionals:

First, second, third, mixed, inverted

Câu điều kiện loại 1,2,3, 2+3 và đảo ngữ.

Mixed conditionals:

I don’t have a mobile, so I didn’t call you last night.

>> If I had a mobile, I would have called you then.

Inverted conditionals:

Đảo ngữ loại 1,2,3 lần lượt đưa SHOULD / WERE (+ TO INFINITIVE) / HAD lên đầu thay cho IF như trong các ví dụ sau.

First: If you (should) need help, you can always turn to me.

>> Should you need help, you can always turn to me.

Second: If you had / were to have a wish, what would it be?

>> Were you to have a wish, what would it be?

Third: If you had taken my advice, you wouldn’t have lost your job.

>> Had you taken my advice, you wouldn’t have lost it.

 

Question 5: If I ____ you, I would spend more time with the children.

A. would be; B. were; C. will be; D. am

Question 6: If I ___ you, I would take the doctor’s advice.

A. were; B. are; C. had been; D. will be

Question 7: If I ____ you, I wouldn’t go out in this weather.

A. am; B. had been; C. will be; D. were

Question 8:  If I ______ you, I wouldn’t stay up this late.

A. am; B. will be; C. were; D. would be

(Nguồn: Đề thi QG 2020)


3. The future time clause:

+ Present simple / perfect

Theo ngữ pháp, bạn phải dùng các thì hiện tại trong mệnh đề thời gian tương lai.

Time Conjunctions:

WHEN, AS SOON AS, BEFORE, AFTER, BY THE TIME, (NOT) …UNTIL …

TIME CLAUSE (Present simple / perfect) <> MAIN CLAUSE (WILL + …)

*Examples:

As soon as I see Tom tomorrow, I will give him your message.

After I have done all the homework tonight, I will go out for some fresh air.

 

Question 9: Bill’s mother won’t let him go out with his friends ______.

A. when he finished his homework

B. after he had finished his homework

C. once he finished his homework

D. until he has finished his homework

Question 10: He won’t understand what the responsibilities of a father are ______.

A. until he has his first child

B. after he had had his first child

C. as soon as he had his first child

D. once he had his first child

Question 11: You may not see how important your family is _______.

A. until you live far from home

B. as soon as you lived far from home

C. when you were living far from home

D. after you had lived far from home

Question 12: You will not know who your true friend is ______.

A. after you had trouble and needed help

B. when you were having trouble and needing help

C. until you have trouble and need help

D. as soon as you had trouble and needed help

(Nguồn: Đề thi QG 2020)


4. The cause-effect relationship:

Quan hệ nhân quả tất yếu:

Expected results >> Because / Since / As / Now that

>> . As a result, … / .Therefore, … / …, so …

Kết quả bất ngờ:

Unexpected results >> Although / Though / Even though / Despite / In spite of / Wh-ever

>> . However, …/ …, but …

*Examples:

He had done a lot of revision and he did very well in the examinations.

> Having done a lot of …, he did very well …

> Because he had done …, he did very well …

> Since / As he had done …, he did very well …

> He had done …, so he did very well …

> He had done …. Therefore, he did very well …

> He had done …. As a result, he did very well …

He hardly did any revision. Yet he scored very high in all the exams.

> Although he hardly did any revision, he scored very high in all the exams.

> Though / Even though he hardly did any revision, he scored very high in all the exams.

> Despite / In spite of hardly doing any revision, he scored very high in all the exams.

Sau Despite / In spite of là cum danh từ hay danh động từ!

> He hardly did any revision. However, he scored very high in all the exams.

> He hardly did any revision. Nevertheless, he scored very high in all the exams.

> He hardly did any revision, but he scored very high in all the exams.

 

Question 13: Mary feels confident about the competition _____ she has been well-prepared for it.

A. because of; B. because; C. although; D. despite

Question 14: Many animal species are under threat of extinction _____ widespread deforestation.

A. although; B. despite; C. because; D. because of

Question 15: Mrs Carter feels happy ______ her daughter has made good progress in her studies recently.

A. despite; B. because; C. although; D. because of

Question 16: Polar bears are in danger of going extinct _____ climate change.

A. despite; B. because of; C. because; D. although

(Nguồn: Đề thi QG 2020)


5. Verb patterns:

+ infinitives, sau các động từ chỉ ý muốn có mục đích thông dụng như: would like, hope, expect, plan, intend, want, would prefer, would love, …

+ gerund, sau các động từ yêu ghét, đầu kết, khuyến nghị thông dụng như: enjoy, fancy, not mind, can’t stand, take up, keep, keep on, stop, finish, give up, suggest, advise, recommend, encourage, …

*Examples:

Would you like to have a cold drink?

Do you fancy playing a game of tennis?

I’d recommend brushing your teeth at least twice a day.

They expect to hear from you again soon.

 

Question 17: Most women expect _____ more help with the housework from their husbands.

A. to getting; B. get; C. getting; D. to get

Question 18: Tom doesn’t mind ____ his father mend things around the house.

A. help            ; B. helping; C. to help; D. to helping

Question 19: My daughter sometimes practices ______ English with her friends after school.

A. speak; B. speaking; C. to speaking; D. to speak

Question 20: I’m planning ______ my children to the new amusement part this weekend.

A. taking; B. take; C. to take; D. to taking

(Nguồn: Đề thi QG 2020)


6. The article:

Ø (zero article) / the / a / an

Nắm vững nguyên tắc cơ bản dùng mạo từ trong tiếng Anh là:

>> Nói chung, bất định, vô hạn, bất kỳ

A / An + singular noun, danh từ số ít bất định

Zero + Plural noun – s /es, danh từ số nhiều vô hạn

Zero +Uncount noun + Zero, danh từ không đếm được bao quát

*Examples:

An insect has six legs.

Insects have six legs.

Furniture includes tables, chairs, cupboards, shelves and so on, inside a house.

>> Khi nói đến người, vật, sự việc cụ thể, xác định rõ, hữu hạn, người nói nghe đều đã biết

The girl sitting beside you comes from Thailand.

The girls I share this house with come from Korea.

The furniture in this house is all made of pinewood.


Question 21: He is often _____ last person to leave the office.

A. an; B. a; C. the; D. Ø (no article)

Question 22: Mr Smith is often _____ first person to come to the office in the morning.

A. the; B. an; C. a; D. Ø (no article)

Question 23: My mother is often ____ first person to get up in the family.

A. an; B. Ø (no article); C. the; D. a

Question 24: My mother is often  _____ last person to go to bed in my family.

A. a; B. Ø (no article); C. the; D. an

(Nguồn: Đề thi QG 2020)


7. Verb tenses:

+ Sequence of tenses

Mốc tính hiện tại >> Nhóm thì hiện tại

Mốc tính quá khứ >> Nhóm thì quá khứ

Present perfect (continuous) + since + simple past

(Tình trạng / diễn tiến đến nay + khởi đầu từ khi nào)

*Examples:

We want to thank them for all the good things they have done for us.

We wanted to thank them for all the good things they had done for us.

+ In reported speech

Động từ tường thuật quá khứ >> Nhóm dạng thì quá khứ

*Examples:

Granddad always insists that we have to listen to the elders.

Granddad used to insist that we had to listen to the elders.

 

Question 25: Her academic performance has greatly improved since she ____ her study methods.

A. will change; B. changed; C. was changing; D. would change

Question 26: Mary has been financially independent since she _____ to work.

A. went out; B. will go out; C. was going out; D. would go out

Question 27: The city has changed a lot since I last _____ it.

A. visited; B. visit; C. will visit; D. would visit

Question 28: The air quality in this area has improved a lot since that factory _______.

A. was closing; B. would close; C. closed; D. will close

(Nguồn: Đề thi QG 2020)


8. Tag questions:

+ Basics only:

Chỉ là các trường hợp thông dụng cơ bản. Lưu ý các từ phủ định ẩn và các đại từ bất định được thay thế bởi đại từ số nhiều THEY.

*Examples:

You don’t eat much fish, do you?

You hardly ever stay out late, do you?

They rarely offer to help us, do they?

Someone has cleaned the room, haven’t they?

Nobody pays attention to homeless people, do they?

Chú ý dạng đuôi tương lai trong 3 câu yêu cầu sau đây:

Let’s clean up after the party, shall we?

Give me a hand, will you? Không phải là won’t you!

Don’t waste time, will you?

 

Question 29: You like the food here, ____?

A. won’t you; B. didn’t you; C. don’t you; D. haven’t you

Question 30: You often drive to work,____?

A. don’t you; B. didn’t you; C. won’t you; D. haven’t you

Question 31: You often walk to school,_____?

A. don’t you; B. didn’t you; C. won’t you; D. haven’t you

Question 32: You often play sports, ________?

A. didn’t you; B. haven’t you; C. don’t you; D. won’t you

(Nguồn: Đề thi QG 2020)


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