Learning Tips for Going Far and Flying High!

Plural -S/Es Endings / Simple Past -Ed Endings / an Overview of Verb Tenses / the Passive in a Nutshell / Gambits and Fillers in Turn-taking

I. GRAMMAR: PLURAL S/ES ENDINGS

Tips đuôi –s/es có trong danh từ số nhiều (plural nouns).

Ex. models, film stars, celebrities, movies, characters, heroes, hugs, kisses,…

Và trong động từ ngôi 3 số ít hiện tại đơn (singular third-person simple present verbs).

Ex. He often jokes; She never speaks to me; The Moon circles the Earth; Water freezes at zero degrees Celsius.

> It sounds like /s/ following the unvoiced sound of t, k, que, p, ph, th, f: /t, k, p, T, f/.

Ex. tests, tips, hip-hops, hopes, photographs, Maths, depths, cliffs,…

Mẹo nhớ: Tôi không phải thủ phạm. (đang chờ câu tiếng Anh từ các bạn)

> It sounds like /iz/ following the fricative sound of s, z, sh, ch, x, ge: /s, z, S, tS, Z, ks, dZ/

Ex. buses, buzzes, wishes, watches, garages, fixes, changes,…

Mẹo nhớ: Sáng dzậy sớm chó sủa xôn xao g(h)ê. (đang chờ câu tiếng Anh từ các bạn)

> It sounds like /z/ in all the other words.

Ex. trains, helicopters, vehicles, bicycles, cars, tractors, drones,…


II. GRAMMAR: SIMPLE PAST -ED ENDINGS

Tips đuôi –ed có trong động từ quá khứ đơn, quá khứ phân từ theo quy tắc; trong tính phân từ ‘bị cảm’, cảm xúc bị tác động.

Ex. hope, hoped, hoped

Ex. They are getting bored.

> It sounds like /id/ following the sound of t and d /t, d/.

Mẹo nhớ: Tiền và Đô La. (đang chờ câu tiếng Anh từ các bạn)

Ex. wanted, shouted, needed, decided, heeded, divided, splitted, fitted,…

> It sounds like /t/ following the voiceless sound of ch, x, k, p, ph, f, s, ce, sh, or /tS, ks, k, p, f, s, S/

Ex. reached, mixed, booked, stopped, photographed, sniffed, missed, danced, washed,…

Mẹo nhớ: Cha xứ không cho phép Sơ chạy xe SH. (đang chờ câu tiếng Anh từ các bạn)

> It sounds like /d/ in all other cases.

Ex. trained, timed, dried, lived, advised, eased, freed,…


III. GRAMMAR: AN OVERVIEW OF VERB TENSES

Why is it that verb tenses are so important in English?

While the subject indicates the topic, the predicate verb that follows refers to almost everything else: the action or state, the feeling or mood and voice, the time and aspect and that’s not all. The verb is important, so is the verb tense.

Why are there 12 tenses?

There are 3 times, namely past, present and future. Each of them has 4 different aspects, say, simple, progressive, perfect and perfect progressive. Thus, there are 12 tenses!

Which tenses are harder to use for learners?

The past was fixed; the present is clear-here and now, but the future is uncertain and it has so many different aspects of expectation on the part of the speaker, so future forms have proved to be much harder than all the others.

TIME

ASPECT

TENSE

PAST

PRESENT

FUTURE

SIMPLE

PROGRESSIVE

PERFECT

PERFECT PROGRESSIVE

PAST (S/P/P/PP)

PRESENT (S/P/P/PP)

FUTURE (S/P/P/PP)

WHAT DOES ‘ASPECT’ MEAN?

A fact, a routine and actions in sequence >> Simple past, present and future

Examples of simple tenses:

1. Who discovered America?

2. Bill gets up early and goes jogging every morning.

3. Next week I will work from Monday to Friday as usual.

An action in progress >> Progressive tenses

Examples of progressive tenses:

1. What were you doing at this time yesterday?

2. What are your parents doing at the moment?

3. What will you be doing at this time tomorrow?

A complete action or how much has been completed up to a time >> Perfect tenses.

Examples of perfect tenses:

1. We had finished the project by this time last year.

2. We have finished the project now.

3. We will have finished the project by this time next year.

A continual or continuous activity or how long it has been going on up to a point of time >> Perfect progressive tenses.

Examples of perfect progressive tenses:

1. I had been doing the same job for 9 years by this time last year.

2. I have been doing the same job for 10 years (by) now.

3. I will have been doing the same job for 11 years by this time next year.


IV. GRAMMAR: THE PASSIVE IN A NUTSHELL

ĐƯỢC TẠO RA – BỊ TÁC ĐỘNG

BE + PAST PARTICIPLE

To emphasize something that is done rather than someone who does it.

Ex. This pagoda was built a long time ago.

To describe a process other than the agent or the doer.

Ex. First coffee cherries are picked from trees. Then coffee beans are extracted from their shells and dried in the sun.

THE 12 TENSES OF BE + PAST PARTICIPLE IN A MINUTE

All you have to do is learn the varying BE forms!

Add BEING for the progressive aspect.

1. SIMPLE TENSES (+PROGRESSIVE)

PAST

WAS / WERE (+ BEING) + PP

PRESENT

AM / IS / ARE (+ BEING) + PP

FUTURE

WILL BE (+ BEING) + PP

2. PERFECT TENSES (+PROGRESSIVE)

PAST PERFECT

HAD BEEN (+ BEING) + PP

PRESENT PERFECT

HAS / HAVE BEEN (+BEING) + PP

FUTURE PERFECT

WILL HAVE BEEN (+ BEING) + PP


V. SPEAKING. GAMBITS AND FILLERS IN TURN-TAKING

NGÔN TỪ BIỂU CẢM TRONG LƯỢT THOẠI

CONVERSATIONAL GAMBITS

For ample interaction and better communication or greater clarity, you should show your attitude and feelings after you listen and before you speak. A good way to do this is by giving gambits.

OPENING GAMBITS

To start a conversation or to introduce new idea during the conversation. For example: someone may say “Excuse me, please” to attract someone’s attention in order to open a conversation. He then may say “In my view” to introduce something more serious.

Ex. To break in

Excuse me,

Sorry for interrupting,

Say,

So,

Can I add here that…

Ex. To state your opinion

To my view

In my opinion

I guess

I suppose

For me, …

In some way, …

LINKING GAMBITS

You can move from one idea to the next in a good logical order. Therefore, it will be easier for the listeners to understand what the speaker says. At the same time, those gambits will help the listeners to be more prepared to reply the speaker’s utterances. For example: gambit “in addition…” indicates that the speaker tries to add information on his previous utterance, or the gambit “what I’m trying to say is…” may be used to correct his words.

Ex. To add on

Besides,

Apart from that,

In addition,

What’s more,

Even,…

Ex. To look at the other side of the matter

In fact,

Actually,

However,

Whatever you say,

No matter what you say,

Believe it or not,…

RESPONDING GAMBITS

To respond the other’s utterance, usually for stating agreement/disagreement, showing surprise, disbelief, polite interest, or checking someone understanding. Someone may say “you must be joking!” with a higher tone to show that he strongly disagrees with what another has just said.

Ex. To show disbelief

Really?

You must be joking!

I’m not sure about that.

It sounds strange.

That’s not like her.

That’s not typical of him.

Ex. To show your interest

Really?

Is it?

Did you?

How did it happen?

How did you do that?

Whoever told you so!

That sounds interesting!

How nice!


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