Learning Tips for Going Far and Flying High 2

Present perfect vs. present perfect progressive, The sound of the ‘s’ in pleasure and The english article

I. PRESENT PERFECT VS. PRESENT PERFECT PROGRESSIVE:

What does it look like?

Present perfect

Present perfect progressive

HAS / HAVE + PP

HAS / HAVE BEEN + V-ING


What is it used for?

HAS / HAVE + PP
Nhấn mạnh kết quả, số lượng hoàn thành tính đến hiện tại

HAS / HAVE BEEN + V-ING
Nhấn mạnh diễn tiến sự việc cho đến hiện tại

Whether it is completed so far
Ex. I’ve seen ‘The Titanic’.
A state has existed up to now
Ex. We’ve had this car for ten years.

What has been happening so far
Ex. It’s been raining all day today.
An action has been going on up till now
Ex. We’ve been waiting all afternoon.

How much has been completed.
Ex. I’ve read two thirds of this novel.

How long it has been happening
Ex. I’ve been reading it for 2 weeks.


The ‘clue’ words?

HAS / HAVE + PP

HAS / HAVE BEEN + V-ING

Already, before, not yet, still not, ever, never, just, recently, lately, This is the first time …
 

since, for, recently, lately, for ages

 


Real-life English
A. What have you been doing all morning?
B. I’ve been fixing up the bike.
A. Have you finished it yet?
B. Yeap. I’ve just finished the job.
C. Oh look. It’s wet all over the garden.
D. It’s been raining all night. Thank Goodness!
     The rain has stopped, and the air is much fresher now.
E. We’ve been travelling all this week.
F. Sure. And we’ve visited tens of big cities in America.
G. Have you ever broken a bone?
H. Thankfully. I’ve never broken any part of the body.
I. Have you been to Europe before?
J. Let’s see. This is the third time I’ve been to Europe.

 

II. THE SOUND OF THE ‘S’ IN ‘PLEASURE:

There are only a few of words like these in English. Learn them all right away!
         .  pleasure, measure, leisure, treasure, pleasant, peasant, casual,  …
         . vision, television, visionary, visual, seizure, collision, decision,
                   division, revision, invasion …
          . usual, unusual, conclusion, confusion, fusion, illusion, inclusion, closure,
                   enclosure, explosion,  

III. THE ENGLISH ARTICLE:

Mạo từ tiếng Anh: A / An; The; Zero article.

Học sinh ưu tiên học 5 trường hợp thông dụng nhất sau đây.

1. IN GENERAL, ON THE WHOLE:

Nói chung, vô hạn định, bất định

Các dạng danh từ bất định sau đây thường gặp trong các định nghĩa nói chung trong tiếng Anh. Vậy khi nói chung, có 3 trường hợp: Số ít hay1 đơn vị bất kỳ, số nhiều vô hạn, danh từ bao quát không đếm được.

A / An + singular noun >>       A doctor, An iceberg …
Plural noun – S/ES >>             Doctors, Nurses …
Uncount noun >>                    Furniture, Equipment, Machinery …

Examples:
What’s that over there? >> It’s an iceberg.
What do you do for a living? >> I’m a doctor, a specialist in paediatrics.
Furniture refers to all the household objects like tables, chairs, beds and cupboards.

2. THAT’S THE ONE THAT …

Chỉ vật, người, sự việc quen thuộc cụ thể xác định hữu hạn đối với người trong cuộc

Danh từ xác định cụ thể bởi mệnh đề liên hệ theo sau

The boy dancing with Jane

The present (that) you gave me

The girl (whom) I sit next to

The article published yesterday

3. WHEN YOU REFER TO SOMEONE OR SOMETHING AGAIN.

Khi nói đến sự việc từ lần thứ 2 trở về sau.

Ex. We have a lovely pet dog. The dog washes himself every day with a swim.

4. THE ONLY ONE OF A KIND!

Khi nói đến sự vật, con người duy nhất trong một nhóm

The King of Thailand, The Queen of The UK , The principal of our school, The President of the United States, The Archbishop of Saigon Diocese, …

5. THE OFFICIAL NAME OF A NATION

Khi dùng đến tên chính thức của một quốc gia.

Vietnam                             The Socialist Republic of Vietnam

Thailand                            The Kingdom of Thailand

Germany                            The Federal Republic of Germany

America                             The United States of America

Russia                                The Russian Federation

Còn tiếp kì sau nhé bạn!

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