Tiếng Anh 12 | Unit 3: Ways of Socialising (Hệ 7 Năm)
Thông qua Unit 3: Ways of Socialising, các em sẽ tìm hiểu các cách giao tiếp với người khác (ways of socialising) và từ vựng liên quan; cách đưa ra lời khen (give compliments); câu tường thuật (reported speech),...
1. Before you read:
*Picture 1 features a situation when people say hello. (… cho thấy một tình huống …)
Look at the two men’s gestures. (cử chỉ)
They stand up and shake hands when they say hello. (bắt tay)
*Picture 2 shows us a scene when people say goodbye. (… trình bày một hoạt cảnh …)
Family members are seeing off their relatives outside their house. (tiễn biệt)
They are waving hands to say goodbye and wish them a safe journey. (vẫy tay)
2. While you read:
To attract someone’s attention so that we might speak to that person, we can use either verbal or non-verbal forms of communication. Let us look at non-verbal communication in English. Probably the most common way of attracting someone’s attention is by waving. For example, if we are at a noisy party and see a friend come in the door about 20 metres away, we might raise our hand and wave to her as a signal that we see her.
But how hard can we wave in a situation like this? Suppose you are at the airport, and you see your brother get off the plane and begin walking toward you. If you are excited, you might jump up and down and wave as hard as you can to attract his attention. This is the instance where big, obvious non-verbal signals are appropriate.
There are, however, some social situations where smaller non-verbal signals are more appropriate. In a restaurant, for example, if we want to attract the attention of our waiter, we have several choices. We can wait until he passes near us, catch his eye, and nod slightly to let him know we would like him to come to our table. Or we can raise our hand slightly to show that we need assistance. We do not whistle or clap our hands to get the person’s attention. That is considered impolite and even rude.
In most social situations where some informality is allowed, a brief raise of the hand and a small wave is fine. For instance, if you are walking across the schoolyard and see your teacher approaching you, a small friendly wave to attract his or her attention is appropriate.
Once you’ve got your friend’s attention, you shouldn’t point at the person or thing you want her to look at. A slight nod will do. Pointing at someone is usually considered rude. Of course, there are times when pointing is perfectly acceptable, such as when a teacher wants to get someone’s attention in class. The teacher often points to the student and says, “David, would you read the next sentence, please?” Pointing here is not impolite; it’s simply a way to get someone’s attention.
a) Skimread the first paragraph and pick out the central focus of the article:
>> Đọc lướt tìm trọng tâm của bài viết
attract / get someone’s attention (v): thu hút sự chú ý
speak to someone (v): nói chuyện ngỏ lời cùng ai
verbal and non-verbal forms (n): những hình thức giao tiếp bằng ngôn từ hay phi ngôn từ
b) Scanread the rest of the article and pick out five examples of situation when people make different gestures to get someone’s attention.
>> Đọc quét phần còn lại và dò tìm NĂM tình huống khi có thể dùng cử chỉ thay ngôn từ đề gọi sự chú ý của người khác.
c) Find out WHERE you are, WHO you meet, WHAT you do:
>> Bạn ở đâu, bạn gặp ai và cử chỉ gì phù hợp:
Example: Line 5.
For example, if we are at a noisy party and see a friend …, we might raise our hand and wave to her as a signal that we see her.
d) How to give an example:
>> Cách nói ví dụ khác nhau trích từ bài viết:
Suppose you are at …
For example, if you …
For instance, if you …
There are times when you can …
… such as when you …
e) How to make a suggestion or give advice:
>> Cách gợi ý khác nhau trích từ bài viết:
We might …
We can … or we can …
A small wave is fine (phù hợp)
A brief raise of the hand is appropriate (vừa phải)
You should / shouldn’t …
Pointing is normally considered rude (được xem là khiếm nhã)
Pointing here is not impolite (không phải là bất lịch sự)
f) Gestures to attract attention:
>> Các cử chỉ khơi gợi sự chú ý:
raise one’s hand: giơ tay lên
wave to someone: vẫy tay chào ai
jump up and down: nhảy bật vài lần
wave as hard as you can: vẫy cánh tay hết biên độ
catch someone’s eye: đón ánh mắt
nod slightly: khẽ gật đầu
whistle and clap hands: huýt sáo và vỗ tay
a brief raise of the hand (n)
a small friendly wave (n)
a slight nod (n)
point at someone: chỉ tay nhắm vào ai đó
point to someone: đưa tay hướng về ai đó
1. Giving and responding to compliments: (Khen và đáp lời khen)
A compliment has great power. It can make your day. Moreover, compliments may magnify people’s strengths and empower them with confidence and positivity.
In our everyday life, it is a common communication practice to pay people with compliments. They can greatly strengthen relationships, so we all need to learn how to give a proper one in English.
2. To give a compliment in English: (Tham khảo các cách khen, nhận xét tích cực sau đây)
Để ý các từ khoa đại như REALLY, SO, SUCH, WHAT, HOW, GREAT, PERFECT, AMAZING, NICELY, PERFECTLY, WELLDONE, GOOD JOB, …
You really have a beautiful blouse!
What a beautiful blouse you have!
How nice you look in that beautiful blouse!
You look gorgeous in that blouse!
I like your blouse very much. It looks fantastic on you!
This style of the jacket is perfect for you!
And the color is so fine!
It’s such a cool hat you have on!
You cooked the chicken perfectly!
You gave a great speech! So convincingly!
3. To respond to a compliment in America: (Đáp lại bằng lời biết ơn trước và nhận xét thêm)
Thanks. That’s a nice compliment.
Thank you. You’re very kind to say so.
Thanks a lot. I like it myself, too. It really suits me, doesn’t it?
Thank you. I’m glad it looks fine on me.
Lucky me! I got it in a big sale and it fits me well.
You won’t believe it. I got it second-hand.
You, too. You look great in that dress!
How kind of you to say so.
It’s very nice/kind of you to say so.
Thank you so much.
Thanks for your compliments.
I’m glad you like it
I’m delighted to hear that.
D. WRITING A PARAGRAPH:
1. Sentence Level: (Mẫu câu cơ bản trong tiếng Anh)
*Simple sentence: Câu đơn
S + V + O + adv
There + be + noun + (V-ing / PP) + adv
It + be + adjective + that clause / to infinitive
It + be + pp + that clause
The passive: S + be + pp
1. American people make a point of being polite and friendly.
2. There are many ways to say goodbye.
3. In English it is necessary to prepare someone for our departure.
4. It is also important that we should not leave abruptly.
*Compound sentence: Câu ghép
CLAUSE 1 + LINKER + CLAUSE 2
*Complex sentence: Câu phức
CONJUNCTION + CLAUSE 1, CLAUSE 2
CLAUSE 1 + CONJUNCTION + CLAUSE 2
1. There are many ways to say goodbye and most of them depend on the situation at hand.
2. Although Americans seem friendly, you should not try to make friends with them in a hurry.
3. You should not try to make friends with them in a hurry although Americans seem friendly.
2. Paragraph Level: (Mức chuẩn luận đàm một đoạn văn)
(1) Topic sentence > (2) Supporting sentences > (3) Concluding sentence
(Câu chủ điểm > vài câu phụ trợ > câu tóm kết)
Ex. HOW TO MAKE AN APOLOGY
(1) The simplest way to apologize is to say “I’m sorry.”
(2) Let’s take a common situation: Tom is late for class and enters the classroom.
What does he do? The most polite action is usually to take a seat as quietly as possible and apologize later.
Naturally, more than this is needed, but it’s not time for it because it has already caused some interruption and he doesn’t need to make it any longer. (3) But if the teacher stops and waits for him to say something, he could apologize simply ‘I’m sorry I’m late”, ask permission to take his seat and sit down.
E. LANGUAGE FOCUS:
1. Stress patterns in two-syllable words: (Mẫu trọng âm trong loạt từ hai âm tiết)
Most NOUNS and ADJECTIVES have the first syllable stressed.
NOUNS: signal, problem, instance, increase, contact, promise, culture …
ADJECTIVES: pretty, awesome, dangerous, hopeful, careless, sociable, cruel, patient …
Most VERBS have the second syllable stressed.
VERBS: attract, prevent, pollute, remove, discuss, succeed, increase, decrease …
2. Reported speech – direct and indirect: (Câu tường thuật – nguyên văn và gián tiếp)
*Different reporting verbs:
Động từ tường thuật thông dụng trong câu trần thuật statements, khẳng định và phủ định:
Jane said (to me) that …
Jane said (not) to …
Jane told me that …
Jane told / asked me (not) to …
Động từ tường thuật câu hỏi questions:
Jane asked me if / whether or not / how / when …
Một số động từ diễn tả chức năng cụ thể hơn:
Jane advised / reminded / encouraged /invited me (not) to …
Jane suggested / reccommended / advised doing something.
*Backshift in verb tenses: Present to past forms: (Chuyển đổi sang dạng thì quá khứ)
will > would, can > could, must > had to …
*Change in time words and place words: (Chuyển đổi mốc thời gian và nơi chốn)
now > then, here > there, today > that day,
tomorrow > the next day, yesterday > the previous day …
*Change from first and second person to third person: (Chuyển sang ngôi thứ 3)
I / we / you > he / she / they
me / you > him / her / them
my / our / your > his / her / their
*Not always simple past to past perfect:
Khi không cần nhấn mạnh ý trước sau hay đã hoàn tất.
“I did my homework last night,” Nam said.
Nam said that he had done his homework the night before.
“I was born in Hanoi,” Nam said.
Nam said that he was born in Hanoi.
chuyển đổi sang had been born sẽ là trường hợp câu nệ cứng nhắc overcorrection.